Hello fellow archers, welcome to the first post from ImprovedArchery.com, in this post we’re going to cover all the basic things that you need to know to get started in mounted archery or horseback archery (nowadays, the two names are essentially the same thing).
Before we start, I need to remind you this is a 6000-words long post, you may want to bookmark and read it later if you’re in a hurry, and as always I’ll appreciate if you could help share this post on your favorite social network.
From time to time I’ll keep updating this guide as I learn new things, so be sure to visit this guide regularly.
1. The Brief History of Mounted Archery
Mounted archery is one of the oldest branches of archery with the root that can be traced back to an iron age; replaced the use of the chariots that were popular in the bronze age.
Back then, the technique of mounted archery was used by a native of the vast grassland areas for hunting, for protecting livestocks, and for war.
As a technique, it was adopted and developed for the first time by European nomads, Iranian peoples, and Indians during antiquity period and by the Hungarians, Mongols, and the Turkic peoples during the Middle Ages. Later on, the practice began to spread to Eastern Europe, Mesopotamia, and East Asia.
In Japan, mounted archery is called Kisha and became a highly honored tradition in traditional Japanese Archery. It is celebrated regularly in a traditional event called Yabusame in which the horseback archers shoot blunt arrows at plywood targets.
The earliest evidence of early mounted archers is depicted in the Assyrian sculpture from the Neo Assyrian Empire of about 9th century BC, which ruled modern Iraq, Syria, and much of Iran.
Mounted Archery for War
Throughout centuries, horseback archery had been used by various different cultures as a technique to combat. There are two types of horse archers used in battle: light horse archers, and heavy horse archers.
Light Horse Archers
Light horse archers were skirmishers, infantry or cavalry soldiers who were designed to be able to move quickly to harass the enemy – quickly engage and attack the enemy in the battlefield, then retreat and attack again.
In this attacking pattern, they were able to strike rapidly even before the enemy ready to cause confusion and disruption in enemy formations and weaken enemy morale.
The most well-known light horse archers in history were Scythian, Hun, Parthian, Cuman or Pecheneg horsemen
Heavy Horse Archers
On the other hand, heavy horse archers units came to a battlefield, not to harass or weaken their enemy formation, but to engage in actual combat and kill all of their enemies.
They would shoot in volleys instead of shooting as individuals then charged in and fought their enemy in close combat using close combat weapons, such as lances or spears.
Different from light horse archers where speed mattered a lot and therefore didn’t wear heavy armor or carry a lot of weapons, heavy horse archers were fully-armored in a mail or lamellar armor, and helmets, in some nations even the horses were armored.
Some of the most notable heavy horse archers in history were Byzantine kavallarioi, Turkish timariots, Russian druzhina, and Japanese samurai.Some nations, like medieval Mongols, Hungarians, and Cumans had both light and heavy horse archers in their military units.
The Decline of Mounted Archery
In the 16th, mounted archery was gradually declined as firearms technology was invented.
Even though the earliest firearms technology was far from perfect and had many weaknesses, but many nations began to realize the potential of firearms for war.From 16th to the 17th century, bow and crossbows remained parallel in use while the extensive study and development of firearms technology kept continuing.
Until finally, the invention of repeating firearms technology marked the end of mounted archery era.By the 18th and subsequent centuries, firearms and arrows had largely displaced bows in many nations.
For many nations such as Europe, the decision to replace bows was not because firearms were superior in any way, but because they were easier to use and learn.New soldiers could be trained to shoot a gun in a matter of months compared with archery that took years to master.
Modern Revival of Mounted Archery
As a sport, modern archery was revived in Mongolia in 1921 and displayed at a traditional festival called Naadam.
Today, mounted archery is a growing sport in many countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, and Japan with competitions held all around the world regularly.
2. Essential Mounted Archery Gears for Beginners
To get started in mounted archery, you need to have a minimum these six different pieces of equipment.
- Thumb/finger protection
- Riding hat/helmet
Modern mounted archers often use only traditional recurved composite bows since compound bows are strictly prohibited in mounted archery competitions.
For a competition, the rules clearly state you can’t use neither compounds nor bows with an arrow rest/shelf.Other than these two rules, I don’t think there is any other rules govern the use of the bow in mounted archery competitions.
Since you’re going to loose arrows while riding from horseback, you may want to get a shorter bow for maneuverability and ease of handling.
What to Look For When Buying a Bow for Mounted/Horseback Archery?
Basically, there are two things that you need to look for when buying a bow: draw length and draw weight.
According to an article from yeoldearcheryshoppe.com, draw length is “the distance from the nock point to the throat of the grip plus 1 3/4 inches”, while draw weight is “the peak amount of weight an archer will pull while drawing the bow”.
Why Do They Matter for You?
Regardless of what kind of bow you shoot, draw length and draw weight are important because they determine the accuracy of your shot.
Picking the wrong draw length and weight can decrease your accuracy, comfort and in some cases, lead to injury.
Determine The Bow Length for Mounted Archery
There are a lot of short bows with various lengths, but generally, for mounted archery all the bows used are either 48″ or 53″.I would suggest going with 53″ bow if you’re just starting out, 48″ bow is faster, but it’s more difficult to control.
Determine The Draw Weight for Mounted Archery
Depending on the group/location, many draw weight for horse archery competitions range between 25 to 45 pounds so you may want to get a bow that is able to compensate for an overdraw within that range.
Some mounted archers might prefer to get a bow with higher poundage. However, you need to remember a higher poundage bow makes your arms sore much more quickly.
If you’re just getting started, you should start from the lowest poundage bow. Avoid the bow that is too heavy for you. Picking a bow that is too heavy will lead to “overbowed”, and when you’re “overbowed”, you won’t be able to shoot well and you could end up injuring yourself.
A sure sign of overbowing is if you can’t draw a bow while keeping your entire body (including arm and shoulder) stood still then the bow is too heavy for you to use at the moment.
As you’re gaining more experiences, you can then try a higher poundage bow.
The farthest shot on the most mounted archery courses does not exceed 45 meters, a bow with 30 to 45 pounds draws weight is sufficient for most competitions.
Borrow or Rent a Bow When You’re Just Getting Started
While first getting the hang of mounted archery, I would recommend to borrow or rent a bow or get cheaper bows such as light, cheap youth bows, or cheap fiberglass bear bows.
The reason is that as mentioned before, in the beginning, you may only be able to shoot a lighter bow. If you’re consistent in your training, you’ll find your ability to pull a heavier bow improve rapidly in the first few months after starting archery.
When you have improved your technique and building up your muscles, that is the time to buy a bow for permanent use (Read my review of the best mounted archery bow here).
There are many things that you need to consider when you’re choosing the best arrow to use, the most important ones are arrow materials, arrow mass, arrow spine, and fletching.
We’ll delve more deeply into the mechanic of an arrow in the future posts series, but today I would want to make things as simple for you as possible.
Let’s start with the materials.
Aluminum, carbon, wood or bamboo arrows are the available types of arrows used in mounted archery.
I would suggest sticking with only aluminum arrows for a beginner, and contrary to popular belief, stay away from carbon, wood, and bamboo arrows.
I’ll explain more in the following.
Out of the four materials, carbon arrow is the lightest, thus the fastest arrow. For mounted archery, in most cases, speed prevails over precision, which is the reason why most mounted archers prefer carbon arrows over other materials. But there’s a drawback, however.
There are two types of carbon arrow: pure carbon and alloy/carbon composites. Some horseback archery clubs do not allow pure carbon arrows because they cannot be found, no metal detector will be able to detect them if you miss the target and lose the arrows in the ground.
The losing arrows in grass might then be broken into splinters which could run the risk of the horses accidentally eating the splinters when they are grazing in the field.
Some archers also think that carbon arrows are too fragile (pure or composite), if the shoot goes wrong, even the tiniest crack is enough to shatter and go through your hand.
Some experienced horseback archers may choose to use carbon shafts, but if you’re a beginner in horseback archery, I would suggest using aluminum arrows for the risks mentioned above.
Most horseback archers prefer to use aluminum arrows because they are more resilient from cranking and splintering, unlike carbon arrows.
The worst thing that could happen if a thing goes wrong is that the aluminum arrows simply bend or dent, your accuracy suffers but is not dangerous for you or your horse.
Most modern mounted archers today rarely use wood or bamboo arrows other than for their traditional look and feel. The problem is because wooden arrows cannot be matched as precisely as aluminum and carbon arrow thus difficult to replace if lost or broken.
If you need to replace aluminum or carbon arrows, you just need to any good local or online archery store, input the shaft size and length, and you will get exactly the same shafts as your previous shafts.
Try that with wooden arrows, and you will be most likely get a new set of arrows with different spine and mass.
Whether you’re going to use carbon, aluminum, wood, or bamboo arrows, make sure you only use arrows with feather fletching, it is the best type of fletching for mounted archery. Never use plastic fletching since they are too stiff.
Feather Fletching Explained
When you look at most arrows, you’ll usually see there are three feathers (or fletchings) consisting of two vanes or feathers of the same colors, and one that’s odd colored.
This odd colored feather is what traditionally called cock feather or often called “index feather” in modern times.
This cock feather gives you a clue how the arrow needs to be positioned on the string (this process is called nocking) to minimize the possibility that the feather will contact the arrow rest.
So to nock an arrow you need to do the following two things:
- Position the arrow on the bow so index feather is pointing away from the bow toward you.
- Place the nock of the arrow under the nocking point.
When you do these two things right, the other two fletchings will be able to pass without contacting the bow.
This is When Plastic Fletchings Would Be a Problem…
As you’re nocking and drawing while riding, you might not have enough time to ensure the index feather is facing out. Plastic fletching will always misdirect the arrow if you nock the arrow the wrong way due to their weight and stiffness.
But it’s an entirely different story if you shot with feather fletching.
Feather fletching is so much more forgiving than plastic fletching. You could have a bad shooting form and mis-nock the arrow and still gets an accurate aim.
The first reason lies in the surface of the feather vanes, it has a slight roughness which helps grip the airflow. This added grip helps the arrow realign itself.
The second, feather weighs much less than plastic fletchings—as much as 700% less. This less weight helps feather fletchings become much faster and more stable.
The third and most important is because feather fletching has the ability to fold down. When it contacts with a bow, arrow rest, or other obstruction, it does an unbelievable job of folding down out of the way, then popping back straight to the original direction.
Essentially, feather fletchings allow you to concentrate on the game without worrying too much about having your form and release 100% accurate.
Another thing to remember, you want to get an arrow with 500-600 spines. The stiffness of an arrow is measured by a scale known as arrow spines. The lower the number, the stiffer the arrow.
It is another factor that determines the accuracy of your shot.
If the arrow spine rating is too low, then the arrow will become too stiff and won’t be able to flex enough. If the arrow spine rating is too high, then the arrow will oscillate erratically. Either way, your accuracy suffers.
To get an accurate shot, you need to find the right number, so the arrow will only flex a certain amount when it leaves the bow. Determining the right arrow spine depends on your bow draw length and draw weight.
We will talk more about an arrow spine in the future post, but for today, you want to make things simpler, choose an arrow with 500-600 spines for your bow setup.
Feather Fletching is Softer on Your Hand
Since you can’t use shelf arrow in mounted archery, you have to learn to shoot without a shelf. This is when many archers often accidentally make a mistake of using their bow hand as a shelf.
Without shelf, the fletching could slice across your hand on the way past.With feather fletching, you can minimize the risk of your hand getting cuts as it is gentler on your hand.
Making a feather fletching is time-consuming, and labor-intensive because everything must be done by hands from cutting to inspecting.
As a result, feather fletchings do cost more compared with plastic fletching. However, an added cost of only pennies an arrow is nothing when you consider all the benefits that feather fletching gives.
2.3. Thumb/Finger Protectors
There are many different types of protector for your thumb or finger. Which one should you get? That is going to depend on the archer’s draw/release style.
What is a better way of learning than watching by example? This video will show you different types of drawing styles practiced in horseback archery.
Now you have learned some of the most popular draw styles in horseback archery. Next, let’s take a look at the most common thumb/finger protection used in mountain archery:
2.3.1. Athletic Tape/Band-Aids
If you just bought your first bow, and you can’t wait to start shooting your first arrow, you can use band-aids. You can use them only once, but they are cheap, and one box of band-aids is enough for days worth of shooting practice.
2.3.2. Thumb Ring
The Mongolian or thumb draw is the most popular draw style that I often see people use in mounted archery competitions. The reason why draw style is so popular among mounted archers because this style allows archers to release arrow really fast while riding a galloping horse.
If thumb draw is the style that you would likely or have adopted, then you will need a thumb ring for protection of the thumb pad and joints. Thumb ring is useful to protect your thumb’s skin from getting sliced, and improving your form and increasing the accuracy of your shot as well.
The history of thumb ring dates back to the Neolithic period with the first type of thumb ring were made of leather. From then on, many different types of materials have been used to make thumb rings-stone, horn, wood, bone, antler, metal, ivory, plastic, ceramic, or glass.
2.3.3. Thumb Glove
You might have seen Katniss or Oliver Queen shoot their bows using gloves in Hunger Games or Arrow series. It’s actually kinda cool using gloves when shooting an arrow.
Thumb glove is an excellent alternative to thumb ring. Most archers use thumb glove to protect their bow hands while developing form. Then use the thumb ring to compete in an actual competition.
2.3.4. Three Finger Glove
Three finger glove is a preferred glove for archers whose draw style is more inclined toward using fingers such as Mediterranean draw, 3 fingers draw, or Apache draw.
2.3.5. Finger Tab
What is a finger tab?
Finger tab or archer tab is simply a piece of leather that protects your finger from the bowstring.
Why do you need a finger tab?
You need a finger tab because shooting without it, apart from ruining your release, can cause a painful sore on your fingers after a prolonged shooting session. I cannot stress how important finger tab is for you, get one, even if it is a cheap one.
Tabs or Gloves for Mounted Archers?
Many top archers that I know prefer finger tab over the glove for good reasons. Unlike glove, finger tab doesn’t wear quickly as it is made of leather, easier to fit and give you a cleaner release.
How could? A finger tab holds together all the three fingers used in Mediterranean draw style, encouraging the three fingers acting together as one unit, resulting in a smooth release with every shoot. On top of that, a finger tab is also less expensive than a glove.
What is the best finger tab for mounted archers?
There are many different tabs that you can find online or in your local archery store. Some archers might swear by one brand and hate another, and vice versa. In the end, it all comes down to what feels best for you.
Some mounted archery competitions require their participants to use a quiver, others expect you to shoot from bare hand. When you’re getting started, you should practice shooting using a quiver first.
Shooting while holding extra arrows in your bow hand is very tricky even for experienced horseback archers.
Since keeping arrows in the boot, lower leg, arm, or saddle isn’t safe and isn’t allowed under almost all mounted archery rules that I know, quivers then become another essential archery equipment that you need to add in your archery arsenal list.
Whenever you’re using a quiver on horseback, you should consider the safety and practicality of using the quiver.
Some of the questions that you may want to ask yourself when you’re buying a quiver are:
- How many arrows can this quivery carry?
- How practical is this quiver for quick nocking?
- Is this quiver convenient for both you and your horse?
- Can you take arrows from the quiver without poking your horse?
- Is there any risk of falling onto the arrows if you were falling off your horse?
Hip/thigh, belt, and back quivers are the most common types of quivers used in horseback archery—each with its own pros and cons.
1. Back Quiver
Let’s start with a back quiver, this is probably the most popular quiver type that you often see in movies. As the name suggests, the back quiver is worn on the back, with the nock ends protruding above your draw shoulder. The advantage of the back quiver is you can fire and draw arrows rapidly from this position.
2. Right Hip/Thigh Quiver
A right hip/thigh quiver is a type of quiver attached to the right hip/thigh. It doesn’t matter whether the arrows are carried at the hip or against the tight, as long as you remember to position the arrow so that you can draw them easily and not flapping around the horse’s flank.
To draw an arrow from this quiver, you need to grasp it around the midpoint of the arrow shaft.
Some quivers have spacers between arrows to help you grip them more easily, others have the arrows bumped together; other gives you both options, as you’re training toward developing your shooting form, you may want to try both options to see which one you’re most comfortable with.
3. Left Hip Quiver
Hip quiver is secured to the archer’s left hip with the arrows protrude forwards, where the arrows are pulled diagonally across your body. From this position, you can quickly and easily nock arrows to the right-hand side of the grip. Read my review of the best mounted archery quiver here.
4. Belt Quiver
A belt quiver is worn over the hip, suspended from the belt. Many variations of belt quiver exist, such as belt quiver that can be carried on the dominant hand side, left-hand side, off-hand side, or small of the back. Since many variations of belt quiver exist, be sure to read the instruction manual carefully when you use belt quiver.
The most common type of belt quiver requires the arrows to be fanned out so you can pick them individually. And you need to ensure the shafts are not crossed over, too.
It’s shame actually that most mounted archery clubs and schools that I’d visited often overlook this small but important equipment (along with thumb ring).
If the thumb ring protects you from a sore thumb, armguard (or also known as a bracer) protects the inside of your bow arm from getting contusions – bruises resulting from string slap, they are not lethal but they do HURT!
Armguard can be made from different types of materials: leather, stone, or plastic. Once again, which one you should get depends on your personal preference. No matter which brands that you choose, I would suggest getting a leather-made armguard.
2.6. Riding Hat/Helmet
You should always wear a riding hat/helmet whenever you’re practicing horseback archery. Some camps would provide helmets for you to rent, other camps might ask you to bring your own helmet.
Regardless of which camp you’re going to enroll, I would always recommend bringing your own helmet.
Riding hat is a little extra precaution that will keep you stay safe during your mounted archery’s career.Make sure you replace your helmet at the manufacturer’s recommended interval.
2.7. Saddle (Optional)
You can use virtually any type of saddles in mounted archery, it’s entirely a matter of personal preference. The most important thing to remember here is that the saddle needs to fit the horse.
The four types of saddles commonly used in horseback archery are:
- English saddle
- Western saddle
- Steppe saddle
- Australian stock saddle
2.7.1. English Saddle
English saddle is a single girth saddle with two buckles that are attached to strap on the saddle (billets). There are many different versions of English saddle used for different purposes (for dressage, showjumping, cavalry, etc.), but for horseback archery, you can use any version of English saddle, it doesn’t matter.
For horseback archery, English saddle offers the greatest maneuverability compared with the other types of saddles at the cost of security and stability. This means it is easier to take a shooting position from seated or standing position, but holding yourself out during the shoot can be difficult than in many other saddles.
2.7.2. Western Saddle
Contrary to English saddle, Western saddle offers a great deal of stability and security at the cost of maneuverability. This means getting into a shooting position can be difficult, but holding steady to take the shot afterward is easier than in the other types of saddles.
The Western saddle is an ideal saddle if you are an archer with a seated shooting technique, but is not an ideal saddle if you prefer to shot in a standing position.
2.7.3. Steppe Saddle
Steppe saddle is the best saddle for those who prefer to shoot using a shooting standing technique. This saddle has a design that fits well for horseback archery and thereby becomes a favorite among many top horseback archers.
Heavily influenced by military and Asian saddle design, Steppe saddle has a short seat, a flared pommel and cantle, and forward-set stirrups.
The design helps and provides a firm ground for mounted archers to perform various shooting techniques and movements pertaining to horseback archery such as shooting in a standing position, doing extreme front and back shots, and doing a side shot.
2.7.4. Australian Stock Saddle
Australian stock saddle is my favorite type of saddle.With a design that looks like a cross between English and Western saddle design, it offers a great compromise between those who prefer to shoot seated and for those who wish to shoot standing.
The main feature of this saddle is two large knee pads known as poleys that give something for the mounted archer to brace their tights against while riding for an added stability and a deep, concave shape seat that looks alike with a Western saddle.To conclude no single saddle is best for all.
Saddle choice largely depends on your shooting technique and personal preference. The most important thing to remember is the saddle must fit the horse.
3. How to Shoot a Bow and Arrow in Horseback Archery
I wrote this section with an assumption that you have already had some experiences with on the ground archery such as traditional archery or target archery. Therefore, this section covers techniques specific mostly to mounted archery.
Two of the most common draw/release techniques practiced in mounted archery are thumb draw and Mediterranean draw. Thumb draw offers a slightly better advantage in terms of quick nocking, but if you’re coming from the west (Europe and North America), you’re more likely to use Mediterranean draw technique.
Either method is fine, it depends on which technique that you’ve practiced beforehand.Although a normal Mediterranean draw is okay to be used in mounted archery, three fingers under technique should be avoided.
The technique is often taught to beginner and practiced by many ground archers. It is a great technique to use on the ground, but it gives insufficient control when you use it on horseback.
First time horseback archers may find the stance used in horseback archery is slightly different than the position used in on the ground archery. The best stance for shooting on horseback is to mimic the position as though you are riding the horse – widen your legs and slightly bend the knees.
You may want to use the help of auxiliary tools such as a wooden horse or saddle on a rack or hay bale for simulating a shooting position on horseback.
Forwards and Backwards Shooting
The forward and backward shooting technique is the standard shooting technique that must be mastered by all horseback archers. Whether you’re shooting sideways, forward or backward, you need to remember to keep your shoulders, arms and head stay still.
It’s your waist, hips, knees, and feet that need to be rotated when you want to change your movements from forward to backward or sideways. It’s not advised to change a position of your shoulders, arms, or head while you’re shooting on horseback as it can affect the accuracy of your shoot and in most cases, causing injury.
Body Position for Shooting Forward
To achieve a good base for shooting forward, you need to position your hips as though you’re sitting sideways on the horse. Turn in your left knee toward the horse and your right foot point away from the horse.
To keep your position stable, press the front of the left upper thigh against the saddle and brace the inner calf against the right stirrup leather.Focus your weight on the stirrups, not the seat. This way, you can keep your position stable as your body’s center of gravity is kept central, even though your body has been tilted sideways.
Body Position for Shooting Backward
To achieve a good base for shooting backward, you just need to reverse the position for the forward shot that you have learned above – turn your left foot outwards, and turn in the right knee towards the horse. Brace both of your legs against the stirrup leathers.
The rest of the principles are the same with body position for a forward shot: keep your head, arms, and shoulders in the same place no matter which direction you’re shooting in.And keep your body’s weight in the stirrups, not the seat.
Qabaq sometimes holds as a stand-alone competition, and sometimes holds as a part of a mixed event. Nevertheless, any aspiring horseback archer should master the basic of Qabaq shooting.
Traditional Qabaq shooting involves twisting your body as though you’re shooting backward (remember the body position for a backward shot that we have discussed previously), but at the same time bending forward at the waist.Watch the video below to get a clear idea of Qabaq shooting:
Take a look at the position of the elbow of the archer’s draw arm, it crosses the horse’s neck to the bow side.
Notice that the archer is not leaning on the horse’s neck but supported by his core muscle (one prerequisite to performing Qabaq is you need to have a strong core muscle).
Never lean on the horse’s neck as you could risking yourself falling off from the horse should the horse change its speed.
And just like forward and backward shot, your body’ weight must still be pivoted in the stirrups.
Ground Shot – Jarmaki Method
Jarmaki is a traditional horseback archery technique of shooting downwards. This technique suits well for those using thumb draw. Before attempting to do Jarmaki shot on horseback, you should practice it first on the ground as you could accidentally shot yourself in the foot if you’re not being careful.
Arrow Pick Up
Zero pts are scored in most horseback archery competitions if the archer fails to pick up the arrow, or drops or discards the arrow hence arrow pick up is another important technique that you need to master.
Tips to do arrow pick up:
- Put your fingers tightly together, then have the fingers and thumb at a perpendicular hand position, with your palm at 45 degrees to the ground as you’re leaning to collect the arrow.
- As you ride to collect the arrows, you may want to steer your horse, so you pass the arrow in an S-shape. In this way, you’ll have extra time to check and collect the arrow rather than just going straight.
- As you lean to collect the arrow, you may want to lean lower than you think you need to.
4. Training a Horse for Mounted Archery
The tricky part about horseback archery is that, regardless of whether you have your own horse or are going to rent one, you need to learn horse riding skill and basic of equine knowledge as well.
It is great if you have already had some experiences with on the ground archery before, but if you are learning both riding and archery from scratch, I would suggest to learn them separately first.
5. Mounted Archery Events
There are different types of horseback archery competitions held around the world. Before entering any competition, it’s most important to know first the rules of the event that you’re about to join.
Some questions that you might want to ask are:
- Is there any bonus point?
- How many points and for how many hits?
- Are there penalties for certain faults (not hitting enough, not shooting enough, etc.)?
- Is there any bonus and penalties for time?
- How are those bonuses and penalties calculated?
To sum it up, you would want to find all the nitty gritty of the event before deciding to compete. Luckily, today, all you need to do is a simple Google search to find all the rules of the competitions mentioned below.
Some of the most popular horseback archery competitions are:
- Standard Korean
- HBAE Korean
- Hungarian Tracks
- Mamluk 90
- Aussie 2-3
- Walk & Trot Courses
- Polish Track